The children learn to read and write in Foundation Stage through the Read Write Inc. Phonics scheme.
When they are ready, they start learning the set 1 sounds from this scheme in nursery and build on this learning in throughout their Reception year.
Through their daily Read Write Inc sessions they learn to connect letters and sounds. There are 26 letters of the alphabet but they make 44 sounds. During their phonic sessions they learn to connect the individual letters and letter combinations that make the 44 sounds.
As they become familiar with the letter sound combinations, the children are taught to apply these in their reading and writing.
Once the children have learnt some letter sound combinations, they can then start to begin to blend sounds to read simple words. Initially, they will need support with this and to help them we use a frog puppet called 'Fred'. Fred says the sounds in simple words e.g. c-a-t, p-i-g with a common letter sound relationships. The children hear Fred saying the sounds out loud and are encouraged to blend the sounds together to hear the word. The children need lots of practise at this 'oral blending' as they begin to learn to read. For more information about 'Fred talk' please see the video below.
For more information about the Read Write Inc. Phonics programme and free ebooks please visit: https://home.oxfordowl.co.uk/reading/reading-schemes-oxford-levels/read-write-inc-phonics-guide/